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Page history last edited by 楊聰榮 Edwin Tsung-Rong Yang 8 years, 7 months ago


 

 

移民研究

 

國立臺灣師範大學華語文教學研究所僑教與海外華人研究組課程綱要

科目名稱(中文):移民研究  科目名稱(英文):Migration Studies   全/半年 半 必/選修: 選 總學分數: 3 

授課教師: 楊聰榮  (國際與僑教學院 副教授)

本週主題

16.(6/8) 經濟模式 

 

指定書目:Judith Brown and Rosemary Foot, Migration: The Asian Experience. (MicMillan Press, 1994)

推薦閱讀:Yoko Sellek, “Illegal Foreign Migrant Workers in Japan: Change and Challenge”

 

本週版主:


由負責報告組別全體擔任版主,並選出一人做為
輪值主席

 

書目整理:


請整理相關議題的各種書目,包括課堂講
義及同學提供的材料,及自行找尋的參考資料

 

Bleak future for Japan's foreign workers - 6 Dec 08
Japan pays foreign workers to leave - 20 May 09

 

 

上課筆記:


上課內容與討論 Lecture and Discussion
由負責報告組別整理上課筆記,大家補充。

 

課前準備 Before class


在上課前撰寫課堂講義之摘要及心得,
負責報告組別要準備回答問題。

 

彥廷翻譯:

Illegal Foreign Migrant Workers in Japan: Change and challenge in Japanese Society

日本非法外國移工:日本社會的轉變與挑戰

 

Introduction

    The movement of people is considered to be one of the structural characteristics of the world economy. Capitalist development has always been dependent on the migration of labour both within and across national boundaries. In the context of North-South relations, the industries and transnational enterprises from the highly developed countries of the 'north' expand into the developing countries in the 'south' through direct foreign investment and international subcontracting. Existing industries in the 'south', particularly export-oriented agriculture, manufacturing, and component assembly industries, require a large supply of low-wage workers, and mobilize large numbers of people into wage labour. As a result of labour recruitment, the mobilization of new workers including women into the labour force becomes significant, in turn disrupting traditional work structures. As a result, traditional industries have declined gradually, rural populations have been uprooted and an urban pool of wage labourers and potential migrants has been created. Simultaneously, a foreign presence dominates the new industrial zones objectively and culturally, creating linkages to the countries from which the capital originates. 

人口流動被認為是世界經濟的結構特徵之一。資本主義的發展始終依賴內部和跨國界的勞動力遷移。在北-南關係的脈絡下,工業和跨國企業通過外國直接投資和國際轉包,從“北方”高度發達國家擴大到“南方”發展中國家。現有的「南方」工業,尤其是出口導向型農業、製造業、零件裝配業,需要大量低工資工人,並動員大量人力成為雇傭勞工。勞工招募的結果,顯然婦女也成為新的勞動力,反過來打亂了傳統工業結構。因此傳統產業已經走下坡,農村居民被連根拔起,而城市中的工資階級和潛在的移民已經建立起來了。同時,外國的存在在客觀上和文化上主導了新工業區,建立了資本來源和這些新工業國家的聯繫。

 

    The social history of industrialization in Japan is no exception to this trend, and the recent movement of illegal migrant workers, involving migrations from the peripheral and semi-peripheral dependencies of Asia to the Japanese centre, reflects not only Japan's regional economy hegemony, but a structural characteristic of the world capitalist economy. This chapter describes the current state of foreign illegal migrant workers in Japan and discusses the reasons why the country has been unable to avoid an influx of such workers. In further describes the ongoing metamorphosis in Japanese society from what has commonly been regarded as a 'homogeneous society' in to a heterogeneous, or plural society.

日本工業化社會的歷史也不能自外於這個趨勢。[最近的非法移工移動,包括亞洲外圍與半外圍區域到日本中心的移民],不僅反映了日本的區域性經濟霸權,也反映了世界資本主義經濟的結構性特徵。這一章介紹日本外國非法移工的當前狀態,並討論為什麼這個國家已經無法避免這些工人湧入。進一步說明日本從普遍認為的同質性社會到一個多元或複雜的社會,當中持續性的變化。

 

    In historical terms, Japan has experienced streams of immigrants and emigrants for a very long time. Although the problem of illegal migrant workers only became serious from the mid-1980s onwards, previously Japan had been one of the major 'exporters' of migrants in Asia. The total number of Japanese emigrants between 1868 and 1945 was approximately 780 000, excluding those leaving the area of China and Korea that were Japanese colonies during parts of this period and by 1991, the number of Japanese currently living abroad had reached approximately 260 000. The number of Japanese descendants abroad, including those in second and third generations, is estimated to be approximately 1 400 000. Japan has also accepted immigrants. Nearly 700 000 South and North Korean permanent residents are a legacy of the massive migration of Koreans to Japan between 1910 and 1945, and include people who were conscripted for work as replacement labour for the mining and construction industries.

從歷史上看,日本經歷了很長一段時間的移入和移出潮流。即使非法移工的問題只在一九八零年代中期嚴重起來,日本早已成為亞洲地區主要的移民「出口商」。1868 到 1945 年之間日本移民總人數約為七十八萬,不包括那些居住在當時中國和韓國的日本殖民地的人。而到了1991年,居住在國外的日本人已達到約[二十六萬](疑為兩百六十萬之誤)。國外的日本後裔,包括那些第二代和第三代,估計約一百四十萬。日本也接受移民。將近七十萬南北韓永久居民是 1910 到 1945 年之間韓國向日本大規模移民所遺留下來的,包含了被徵召為採礦與建築業替代勞工的人。

 

    The fact that Japan has experienced both the sending and receiving of migrants has served to influence government policy against contemporary illegal migrant workers. The government perceives that the country is overpopulated to the extent that it has to encourage emigration. It also recognizes that the social, political and economic underpinnings of Japanese society give rise to a highly specific set of beliefs that define the Japanese culture which, through its strength and cohesiveness, provides a fertile breeding ground for discrimination against other Asian nationals. In this sense, the recent problems associated with foreign illegal migrant workers are not new.

日本派出過也接收過移民,這事實影響了日本政府對當代非法移工的政策。政府察覺國內人口過剩的程度鼓勵了移民。政府也承認日本的社會,政治和經濟基礎造成了一套非常具體的信念,定義了何謂日本文化。其實力與凝聚力,滋養了日本人對亞洲其他國家人民的歧視。從這點來看,目前外國非法移工的問題並不新鮮。

 

    Since the mid-1980s the acceptance of foreign workers has become a central issue in Japan. The reason for this is that, although the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act of 1951 provides that the government, except in a very restricted number of cases, may only accept foreign workers who have some special skills or training which cannot be substituted by Japanese nationals, there has been an increasing number of foreigners, especially white-coller workers, who have been attracted by Tokyo's status as a new global financial centre. Furthermore, there is a growing need to make use of foreign labour in Japanese companies. At the same time, the number of illegal migrant workers in the field of so-called unskilled labour who are forbidden from entering the country according to the Immigration Law has risen sharply since the mid 1980s. These illegal migrant workers include those who have engaged in an activity other than that permitted by the status of residence granted them and overstayers continuing in such activities. The influx of illegal migrant workers has engendered a fear in Japan that it might experience the difficulties seen in Western European countries that have received migrant workers, including the unskilled.

20世紀80年代中期以來,是否接受外國工人已經成為日本的核心問題。這麼作的原因是,雖然 1951 年的移民控制和難民認定法案規定,政府除了極少數的情況之外,可以只接受具有特殊技能或訓練、不能被日本國民取代的外國勞工;但仍有越來越多外國人,尤其是白領階級,被東京的「新全球金融中心」地位所吸引。此外,不斷增長的需求使得日本企業使用外籍勞工。在此同時,依照移民法規不准入境的無技術非法移工的數量在 1980 年代中期以來急遽上升。這些非法移工,包括那些從事簽證目的以外活動的移民,和進行類似活動的逾期居留者。非法移工湧入在日本造成恐慌,害怕會經歷那些已經在西歐國家顯現的困難;這些西歐國家接收了移民工人,包括無技術工人在內。

 

 

韻如閱讀:

 

日本的非法外籍移工:日本社會的轉變與挑戰

 

日本工業化如同大部分在資本主義的國家規則一樣,北方(以工業化開發)的國家

需要從南方輸入較便宜的勞工進入本國,包括女性勞工在內,從南方國家,

從事農業、製造業、內容組裝工業等需要勞力之行業,帶動進入了世界性的勞工市場,

從以日本為中心的鄰近國,到日本的非法移工,為一個全球資本經濟的結構性特徵。

同時日本如何由同質的社會轉型為異質或複數多元的社會。

歷史上,日本是顯著的移民移出國,同時也曾接收來自南北韓的移民(1910-1945)

接收在本國沒有的技術人力到日本,1980中期以來,而並不是從是那些所需技術行業的勞力,

所謂非技術的非法移民,成為日本移工問題討伐之對象,他們擔心會有如同西方國家無技術unskilled移民所引發的問題。

1970年代由其他亞洲國家引進女性從事SEX TOUR,來自智利、菲律賓、泰國、台灣。

非法移工的數量與來源之趨勢分析:table8.1

大多數非法移工來自亞洲其他發展中國家,大多數女性來自菲律賓泰國,1988後韓國與馬來西亞大量增加

 

1980年代中期非法移工明顯增加的解釋

-經濟誘因:經濟發展的差距:各國家勞工供需不均所造成的誘因

-反應:

  1. 日本政府對移民法之調整
  2. 外國實習生

 

-造成侵害人權的現象

 

-日本社會現象:

1.日本男性與移工女性通婚

2.外國與通婚小孩的語言問題

3.日本民族性:對外來人的歧視問題

4.對愛滋病的恐懼

5.新納粹團體,激進希望把非法外族趕出日本

 


補充閱讀

 

王勝今、于瀟,〈日本勞動力移民政策走向及非法移民問題〉《人口學刊》,第6期,1999

 

◎非法勞工移民產生的原因:農業勞動力轉移不足,人口增加下降及老化,當第一級產業比例下滑時,自然無法供給第二、三級產業的勞工人口,在心態上也不願意做3D的工作,勞動力短缺是必然現象。

 

◎解決勞力不足的做法:1.進軍開發中國家2.增加老人與婦孺參與3.刺激人口成長4.開放勞工。開放勞工是解決國內勞力短缺的根本之道,但為何仍解決不了勞工問題,在於日本社會對外來者的心態。若要引進外國勞工,則必須是專才,限制非技術移民移入。但非技術移民人數很多,在於兩國的所得差異。

 

◎移民政策的變化:戰後日本為保持文化完整性,限制移民,但工商企業是首批嚐到勞動力短缺的群體。

 

◎改變趨向:1.對非技術移民更嚴格2.培訓外國勞動力制度。後者分官方與民間,官方部份在1950年代已經透過實行Colombo Plan,承擔了為其它國家培訓專業技術人才的有關項目。民間部分先是培訓海外投資分部的人員,後來對非技術勞工的外國勞動力來培訓,一面招收海外日裔,一面在移民法增設trainee身分。1991年設Japan Internat ional Training Cooperat ion Organizat ion, JIT CO組織,成立技術研修生培訓專案Technical Intern Training Program,原培訓人員,通過技術考試,可以成為技術研修生。以上的短期勞動力政策方便管控,但也使雇主與勞動力產生滯留的想法。

 

◎因為知識經濟的概念,人才是考量的因素,政府再度考量移民政策心態,但對外開放的結果,依舊導致限制的聲音出現。

 

 

 

課後分享 After class


在上課後提出你的心得及想法,研究規劃,
如果有相關資料分享,請提原件或連結。

 

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