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科目名稱(中文):移民研究  科目名稱(英文):Migration Studies   全/半年 半 必/選修: 選 總學分數: 3 

授課教師: 楊聰榮  (國際與僑教學院 副教授)


16.(6/8) 經濟模式 


指定書目:Judith Brown and Rosemary Foot, Migration: The Asian Experience. (MicMillan Press, 1994)

推薦閱讀:Yoko Sellek, “Illegal Foreign Migrant Workers in Japan: Change and Challenge”








Bleak future for Japan's foreign workers - 6 Dec 08
Japan pays foreign workers to leave - 20 May 09




上課內容與討論 Lecture and Discussion


課前準備 Before class




Illegal Foreign Migrant Workers in Japan: Change and challenge in Japanese Society




    The movement of people is considered to be one of the structural characteristics of the world economy. Capitalist development has always been dependent on the migration of labour both within and across national boundaries. In the context of North-South relations, the industries and transnational enterprises from the highly developed countries of the 'north' expand into the developing countries in the 'south' through direct foreign investment and international subcontracting. Existing industries in the 'south', particularly export-oriented agriculture, manufacturing, and component assembly industries, require a large supply of low-wage workers, and mobilize large numbers of people into wage labour. As a result of labour recruitment, the mobilization of new workers including women into the labour force becomes significant, in turn disrupting traditional work structures. As a result, traditional industries have declined gradually, rural populations have been uprooted and an urban pool of wage labourers and potential migrants has been created. Simultaneously, a foreign presence dominates the new industrial zones objectively and culturally, creating linkages to the countries from which the capital originates. 



    The social history of industrialization in Japan is no exception to this trend, and the recent movement of illegal migrant workers, involving migrations from the peripheral and semi-peripheral dependencies of Asia to the Japanese centre, reflects not only Japan's regional economy hegemony, but a structural characteristic of the world capitalist economy. This chapter describes the current state of foreign illegal migrant workers in Japan and discusses the reasons why the country has been unable to avoid an influx of such workers. In further describes the ongoing metamorphosis in Japanese society from what has commonly been regarded as a 'homogeneous society' in to a heterogeneous, or plural society.



    In historical terms, Japan has experienced streams of immigrants and emigrants for a very long time. Although the problem of illegal migrant workers only became serious from the mid-1980s onwards, previously Japan had been one of the major 'exporters' of migrants in Asia. The total number of Japanese emigrants between 1868 and 1945 was approximately 780 000, excluding those leaving the area of China and Korea that were Japanese colonies during parts of this period and by 1991, the number of Japanese currently living abroad had reached approximately 260 000. The number of Japanese descendants abroad, including those in second and third generations, is estimated to be approximately 1 400 000. Japan has also accepted immigrants. Nearly 700 000 South and North Korean permanent residents are a legacy of the massive migration of Koreans to Japan between 1910 and 1945, and include people who were conscripted for work as replacement labour for the mining and construction industries.

從歷史上看,日本經歷了很長一段時間的移入和移出潮流。即使非法移工的問題只在一九八零年代中期嚴重起來,日本早已成為亞洲地區主要的移民「出口商」。1868 到 1945 年之間日本移民總人數約為七十八萬,不包括那些居住在當時中國和韓國的日本殖民地的人。而到了1991年,居住在國外的日本人已達到約[二十六萬](疑為兩百六十萬之誤)。國外的日本後裔,包括那些第二代和第三代,估計約一百四十萬。日本也接受移民。將近七十萬南北韓永久居民是 1910 到 1945 年之間韓國向日本大規模移民所遺留下來的,包含了被徵召為採礦與建築業替代勞工的人。


    The fact that Japan has experienced both the sending and receiving of migrants has served to influence government policy against contemporary illegal migrant workers. The government perceives that the country is overpopulated to the extent that it has to encourage emigration. It also recognizes that the social, political and economic underpinnings of Japanese society give rise to a highly specific set of beliefs that define the Japanese culture which, through its strength and cohesiveness, provides a fertile breeding ground for discrimination against other Asian nationals. In this sense, the recent problems associated with foreign illegal migrant workers are not new.



    Since the mid-1980s the acceptance of foreign workers has become a central issue in Japan. The reason for this is that, although the Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition Act of 1951 provides that the government, except in a very restricted number of cases, may only accept foreign workers who have some special skills or training which cannot be substituted by Japanese nationals, there has been an increasing number of foreigners, especially white-coller workers, who have been attracted by Tokyo's status as a new global financial centre. Furthermore, there is a growing need to make use of foreign labour in Japanese companies. At the same time, the number of illegal migrant workers in the field of so-called unskilled labour who are forbidden from entering the country according to the Immigration Law has risen sharply since the mid 1980s. These illegal migrant workers include those who have engaged in an activity other than that permitted by the status of residence granted them and overstayers continuing in such activities. The influx of illegal migrant workers has engendered a fear in Japan that it might experience the difficulties seen in Western European countries that have received migrant workers, including the unskilled.

20世紀80年代中期以來,是否接受外國工人已經成為日本的核心問題。這麼作的原因是,雖然 1951 年的移民控制和難民認定法案規定,政府除了極少數的情況之外,可以只接受具有特殊技能或訓練、不能被日本國民取代的外國勞工;但仍有越來越多外國人,尤其是白領階級,被東京的「新全球金融中心」地位所吸引。此外,不斷增長的需求使得日本企業使用外籍勞工。在此同時,依照移民法規不准入境的無技術非法移工的數量在 1980 年代中期以來急遽上升。這些非法移工,包括那些從事簽證目的以外活動的移民,和進行類似活動的逾期居留者。非法移工湧入在日本造成恐慌,害怕會經歷那些已經在西歐國家顯現的困難;這些西歐國家接收了移民工人,包括無技術工人在內。















1970年代由其他亞洲國家引進女性從事SEX TOUR,來自智利、菲律賓、泰國、台灣。







  1. 日本政府對移民法之調整
  2. 外國實習生





















◎改變趨向:1.對非技術移民更嚴格2.培訓外國勞動力制度。後者分官方與民間,官方部份在1950年代已經透過實行Colombo Plan,承擔了為其它國家培訓專業技術人才的有關項目。民間部分先是培訓海外投資分部的人員,後來對非技術勞工的外國勞動力來培訓,一面招收海外日裔,一面在移民法增設trainee身分。1991年設Japan Internat ional Training Cooperat ion Organizat ion, JIT CO組織,成立技術研修生培訓專案Technical Intern Training Program,原培訓人員,通過技術考試,可以成為技術研修生。以上的短期勞動力政策方便管控,但也使雇主與勞動力產生滯留的想法。






課後分享 After class



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